The law of diminishing marginal utility explains that as a person consumes an item or a product, the satisfaction or utility that they derive from the product wanes as they consume more and more of that product. For example, an individual might buy a certain type of chocolate for a while. Soon, they may buy less and choose another type of chocolate or buy cookies instead because the satisfaction they were initially getting from the chocolate is diminishing.
In economics, the law of diminishing marginal utility states that the marginal utility of a good or service declines as more of it is consumed by an individual. Economic actors receive less and less satisfaction from consuming incremental amounts of a good.
- The law of diminishing marginal utility explains that as a person consumes an item or a product, the satisfaction (utility) that they derive from the product wanes as they consume more and more of that product.
- Demand curves are downward-sloping in microeconomic models since each additional unit of a good or service is put toward a less valuable use.
- Salespeople often use different methodologies of soliciting sales as different customers will have different reasons for purchasing a single quantity of an item.
- Marketers use the law of diminishing marginal utility because they want to keep marginal utility high for products that they sell.
- There are several laws of diminishing marginal units, each of which is different but tangentially related across the life cycle of a product.
Understanding the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility
Whenever an individual interacts or consumes an economic good, that individual acts in a way that demonstrates the order in which they value the use of that good. Thus, the first unit that is consumed satisfies the consumers’ greatest need. The second unit satisfies results in a lesser amount of satisfaction. and so on.
As another example, consider an individual on a deserted island who finds a case of bottled water that washes ashore. That person might drink the first bottle indicating that satisfying their thirst was the most important use of the water. The individual might bathe themselves with the second bottle, or they might decide to save it for later.
If they save it for later, this indicates that the person values the future use of the water more than bathing today, but still less than the immediate quenching of their thirst. This is called ordinal time preference. This concept helps explain savings and investing versus current consumption and spending.
The example above also helps to explain why demand curves are downward-sloping in microeconomic models since each additional unit of a good or service is put toward a less valuable use.
Diminishing Marginal Utility Examples
The law of diminishing marginal utility is not specific to any industry. Its broad concept relates to different sector in different ways. In general, it is statistically proven that consumers exert more caution and attention when faced with higher utility propositions.1
Here are some ways diminishing marginal utility influences processes along a business process.
The technique of selling goods dramatically changes depending on the consumer’s current marginal utility potential. Consider a salesperson who is selling you your first cell phone. With your marginal utility very high with any working cell phone, the sale is easy. However, if you already own a cell phone, the tactics used by the salesperson (i.e. suggesting a different phone for work, suggesting a backup phone, suggesting upgrading your existing model) will differ.
Though not directly to the saying “read the room”, the concept of diminishing marginal utility is very relatable as not every client will associate the same utility of a given product. Some consumers (i.e. those allergic to peanut butter) may have negative utility while most people will have positive marginal utility when offered a single free peanut butter and jelly sandwich.
Companies must be mindful of the law of diminishing marginal utility when planning future periods of production. It can’t always rely on historical manufacturing levels, as changes in consumer demand will impact the number of goods needed.
This concept is especially important for companies that tend to carry inventory. The law of diminishing marginal utility can produce a very steep drop-off. Again, consider the use of cell phones. Many people only need one; there is an incredibly large jump in utility from owning zero cell phones to owning one cell phone. Should a market become quickly saturated with people who all own cell phones, a company may be stuck holding inventory.
Marketers use the law of diminishing marginal utility because they want to keep marginal utility high for products that they sell. A product is consumed because it provides satisfaction, but too much of a product might mean that the marginal utility reaches zero because consumers have had enough of a product and are satiated. Of course, marginal utility depends on the consumer and the product being consumed.
This is an important concept for companies that has a diverse product mix. Imagine your favorite coffee shop. If the shop only marketed a single product, consumers would likely grow tired of that product as their marginal utility would diminish. Marketing professionals must juggle piquing demand for a variety of products to keep consumers interested in numerous products.
Diminishing Marginal Utility vs. Other Measurements
The law of diminishing marginal utility should not be confused with other laws of diminishing marginal units:
- Diminishing marginal utility focuses on the consumer aspect and the decreasing nature of demand over time.
- Diminishing marginal productivity focuses on the manufacturing aspect and the decreasing nature of production over time.
- Diminishing marginal return focuses on the merchant aspect and the decreasing nature of profits over time.
The law of diminishing marginal productivity states that the efficiency gained on slight process improvements may yield incremental benefits for additional units manufactured. An example of diminishing marginal product is labor costs to manufacture a car. It is more profitable to lay off 10% of the manufacturing staff, and the manufacturing line may still make do with the remaining resources for the first few vehicles. However, after a while, the marginal manufacturing benefit decreases due to staff shortages.
The law of diminishing marginal revenue states that once maximum efficiency is reached, the amount of profit earned per unit will decrease. This can be due to a saturated nature of demand (i.e. diminishing marginal utility for consumers) or escalating production costs (i.e. diminishing marginal product for production). Though all three laws are different, each carries with it concepts of economies of scale and is interrelated in the scope of the entire life cycle of a product.
What Is Meant By Marginal Utility?
Marginal utility is the benefit a consumer receives by consuming one additional unit. The benefit you receive for consuming every additional unit will be different, and the law of diminishing marginal utility states the benefit will eventually begin to decrease. The first slice of pizza you eat may be delicious, but the 15th slice may be a little painful.
What Is the Importance of the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility?
The law of diminishing marginal utility dictates many aspects of how a company operates. A company must adjust how many goods it carries in inventory as well as its sales tactics because of the law. In addition, a company’s marketing strategy often revolves around balancing the marginal utility across product lines.
What Is the Formula for Marginal Utility?
Marginal utility is calculated by subtracting the total marginal utility from each other across two quantity levels. For example, owning a single dog may have a marginal utility of 100, and owning a second dog may have a marginal utility of 120. Therefore, the marginal utility of owning a second dog is 20.
Can Marginal Utility Be Zero?
Yes, marginal utility not only can be zero but it can drop to below zero. Consider a summer barbeque. If you haven’t had breakfast yet, that first hot dog will be delicious and the second one won’t be bad either. After a while, you’ll become adverse eating hot dogs and may even get sick (have negative utility) if you continue to eat more.